blunt essays with sharp points


by Scrvpvlvs
Nov 22, 2005 12:48 PM–avoirdupois (áav-ard-a-POYZ, -PWAH): A standard system for trading commodities by weight, originating in France and still the standard in the USA.

unit of measure:

1 pound (lb, lb av)0.453 592 37 kilogram (kg)

fractions of a pound:

1 lb16 ounces (oz, oz av)
1 oz16 drams (dr, dr av)
1 lb7 000 grains

multiples of a pound:

25 lb1 (short/sh) quarter (qtr)
4 qtr1 (short/sh) hundredweight (cwt)
20 cwt1 (short/sh) ton (tn)

Middle English avoir de pois, commodities sold by weight, alteration of Old French aveir de peis, goods of weight : aveir, avoir, to have (from Latin habre. See able) + de, of (from Latin d, from. See de-) + peis, pois, weight (from Vulgar Latin *psum, from Latin pnsum, past participle of pendere, to hang. See (s)pen- in Indo-European Roots). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
In the United States, the pound is no longer a unit of weight. It is a unit of mass, whose value was defined in terms of the kilogram in 1893, and altered slightly in 1894 and again in 1959.
1 kilogram was originally the mass of 1 liter of pure water at a temperature of 3.98 degrees Celsius (°C) and 1 atm (standard atmospheric pressure). Now 1 kilogram is the mass of a particular standard mass in France. This reference mass seems to have lost about 50 micrograms in the last 100 years. (By definition it is more accurate to say that any other object in the universe that had a mass of 1.000 000 kg 100 years ago, and has not changed since then, now has a mass of about 1.000 050 kg.)
1,000 liters ≡ 1 cubic meter.
1 meter is the length of the path travelled by light in absolute vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 seconds.
1 second ≡ 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom.
The current official definition of the Celsius temperature scale sets 0.01 °C at the triple point of water, and defines a degree to be 1/273.16 of the difference in temperature between the triple point of water and absolute zero.
The single combination of pressure and temperature at which water, ice, and water vapour can coexist in a stable equilibrium occurs at exactly 0.01 °C and a pressure of 611.73 pascals.
1 pascal ≡ 1 newton per square meter.
1 newton is the amount of force required to accelerate a mass of 1 kilogram at a rate of 1 meter per second squared. (Thus the original definition of kilogram is circular.)
Absolute zero is defined as the temperature at which all motion of particles would theoretically cease.
1 atm ≡ 101 325 pascals. This “standard atmosphere” is an arbitrary representative value for pressure at sea level.
Originally, the weight of a grain seed from the middle of an ear of barley.
From Latin uncia, meaning a 12th part. (The Roman pound was divided into 12 ounces. The word "inch," meaning 12th of a foot, has the same root.) The symbol oz is from the old Italian word onza (now spelled oncia).
Possibly originated as the weight of silver in ancient greek coin “drachma.”

Labels: , , , , , , , , , , ,

(go to complete article)





E-mail: enter address

Project Euler competitor metaed


Project Euler competitor db8

profile for MetaEd on Stack Exchange, a network of free, community-driven Q&A sites

Recent Articles

Open letter re: Grinnell College alumni “lifetime”...

Spybot – Search & Destroy interferes with Lync 201...

A moment of silence


Howard Schultz of Starbucks: firm on support for m...

In each of us, two natures are at war

Clorox does not understand how to measure bleach

This season’s pie recipe




November 1999
June 2000
July 2000
September 2001
October 2001
February 2002
March 2002
June 2003
February 2004
June 2004
July 2004
August 2004
September 2004
February 2005
March 2005
November 2005
July 2007
March 2008
April 2008
May 2008
October 2008
November 2008
December 2008
January 2009
April 2009
September 2009
December 2009
February 2010
March 2010
May 2010
June 2010
September 2010
October 2010
November 2010
December 2010
January 2011
April 2011
June 2011
July 2011
August 2011
September 2011
December 2011
February 2012
April 2012
May 2012
June 2012
July 2012
August 2012
September 2012
November 2012
January 2013
February 2013
April 2013
February 2014
May 2014
October 2014
June 2017